Increased fuel efficiency and the popularity of electric and alternative-fuel vehicles continue to erode the gas tax base. To protect the revenue base, governments introduce innovations such as mileage-based user fees (MBUFs), charges based on how much one drives rather than how much gasoline is purchased. Advancements in geospatial and other technologies help mitigate privacy issues.
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The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) will set up a program of 5,000 volunteer motorists beginning in 2015 to test the Mileage Based User Fee system, following two successful pilots by the ODOT in 2012–13.